Skin Cancer: Overview, Types, Stages, Symptoms, Diagnosis, & Treatment


According to the World Health Organization skin health is a global health concern that affects millions of people each year. Among its various forms, melanoma, a type of skin cancer arising from pigment producing cells, poses a significant threat due to its potential for rapid spread and metastasis. So recognizing the severity of this issue the World Health Organization plays a crucial role in raising awareness, providing information, and promoting preventive measures to combat the rising incidence of it, especially melanoma.

Skin Cancer Overview:

It’s the abnormal growth of skin cells most often develops on skin exposed to the sun. But this common form of cancer can also occur on areas of your skin not ordinarily exposed to sunlight. So there are three major types of it: basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma. You can reduce your risk of skin cancer by limiting or avoiding exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Checking your skin for suspicious changes can help detect at its earliest stages. Early detection of skin cancer gives you the greatest chance of successful skin cancer treatment.

What are the Types of Skin Cancer?

Here are different types of skin cancer include:

  • Basal cell carcinoma
  • Squamous cell cancer
  • Melanoma
  • Markel cell skin cancer
  • Lymphoma of the skin
  • Kaposi sarcoma
  • Actinic keratosis

What are the Stages of Skin Cancer?

To find out how serious it is, your doctor will look at:

  • How big the tumor is
  • If it’s spread to your lymph nodes
  • If it’s spread to others parts of the body

They are split into two main groups to figure out their severity, according to Stanford Health Care. These are nonmelanoma and melanoma. Nonmelanoma include basal cell and squamous cell cancers. So here are some stages of skin cancer.

  • Stage 0
  • Stage 1
  • Stage 2
  • Stage 3
  • Stage 4

Melanoma is usually staged using the American Joint Committee on Cancer’s TNM system. This system looks at things like the size of a tumor, if it’s spread to lymph nodes, and if it’s spread to other parts of the body. It gives each stage a number, with lower numbers meaning it’s in an earlier stage. Once the TNM categories are known, doctors can figure out the overall stage. Early stage melanomas start at 0, which is called melanoma in suit. Then they go from stages 1 through 4, and sometimes get split up further using capital letters. Everyone’s experience is different, but the stages help doctors figure out the best care for each person. The overall stages of melanoma are:

  • Stage 0
  • Stage 1
  • Stage 2
  • Stage 3
  • Stage 4

What are the Causes and Risk Factors of Skin Cancer?

It occurs when there are errors (mutations) in the DNA of skin cells. The mutations cause the cells to grow out of control and form a mass of cancer cells. It begins in your skin’s top layer, the epidermis. But the epidermis is a thin layer that provides a protective cover of skin cells that your body continually sheds. Certain things can make you more likely to get it, such as melanoma.

  • UV light exposure
  • Moles
  • Light skin, hair loss, and freckling
  • Family history
  • History of skin cancer
  • Weakened immune system
  • Older ager
  • Sunburn
  • Precancerous skin lesion
  • A personal history of skin cancer
  • Exposure to certain substances

What are the Symptoms of Skin Cancer?

It can be different from each other, and they might not slow down many symptoms at first. But if you notice any unusual changes to your skin, it could be a sign of different types of cancer. Paying attention to changes in your skin can help you get diagnosed earlier. Watch out for signs of it, including:

  • Skin lesions
  • Asymmetry
  • Border
  • Color
  • Diameter
  • Evolving

It’s best to know all the possible warning signs if you think you have a spot on your skin that may be it.

What is the Diagnosis of Skin Cancer?

First a doctor will look at a person’s skin and ask about their medical history. They’ll usually ask when the mark first showed up, if it’s changed if it ever hurts or itches and if it bleeds. The doctors will also ask about the person’s family history and any other things that might increase their risk, like being in the sun a lot. They might also check the rest of the body for other unusual moles and spots. And they might feel the lymph nodes to see if they’re bigger than usual. The doctor might then send the person to a skin doctor, called a dermatologist. The dermatologist might look at the mark with a special tool called a dermatoscope, which magnifies it. They might also take a small piece of skin, called a biopsy and send it to a lab to check for signs of cancer. The diagnose skin cancer, your doctor may:

  • Examine your skin
  • Remove a sample of suspicious skin for testing
  • Skin biopsy

What is the Treatment of Skin Cancer?

The treatment plan we suggest will depend on different factors. These include:

  • Size
  • Location
  • Type
  • Stage

After thinking about these things, your doctor team might suggest one or more of these treatments. These include:

  • Cryosurgery
  • Excisional surgery
  • Mohs surgery
  • Curettage and electrodesiccation
  • Chemotherapy
  • Photodynamic therapy
  • Radiation
  • Biological therapy
  • Immunotherapy
  • Freezing
  • Photodynamic

What is the Prevention of Skin Cancer?

To reduce your skin disease, here are some things you can do:

  • Avoid tanning beds and sun lamps.
  • Avoid excessive sun exposure.
  • Stopping smoking.
  • Stay out of direct sunlight when it’s strongest from 10 am to 4 pm, by staying indoors or in the shade during those times.
  • Put on sunscreen and lip balm with SPF 30 or higher on any exposed skin at least 30 minutes before going outside and put more on regularly.
  • Ware a wide-brimmed hat and clothes made of dry dark tightly woven fabric when you’re outside during the day.
  • Avoid exposing yourself to chemicals without wearing personal protective equipment.
  • Wear sunglasses that block 100% of UVB and UVA rays.

It’s also important to check your skin regularly for any changes like new growths or spots. If you notice anything suspicious, tell your doctor. It can be easy to mistake benign growth for it. The following skin conditions have similar symptoms to skin cancer:

  • Seborrheic keratosis
  • Cherry angioma or hemangioma
  • Freckles
  • Dermatofibroma
  • Skin tags

What are the Complications of Skin Cancer?

Possible problems from skin cancer include:

  • Cancer coming back again (recurrence)
  • Cancer cells spreading to nearby tissues (local recurrence)
  • Cancer cells spreading to muscles, nerves, or other organs in your body (metastasis)

If you’ve had skin cancer before you’re more likely to get it again in another place. If your skin cancer comes back, what treatment you can have depends on what type of cancer it is, where it is, how big it is, your health, and what treatment you had before for it.


What is the biggest cancer organization?

The American Cancer Society is the largest funder of cancer research grants in the United States outside of the federal government investing more than $5B over 75 years.

What is the role of WHO in cancer management?

Our core functions are to set norms and standards for cancer control including the development of evidence-based prevention, early diagnosis, screening, treatment, and palliative, and survivorship care programs, as well as to promote monitoring and evaluation through cancer registries and research that are tailored.

What is the main function of the World Health Organization?

WHO works worldwide to promote health, keep the world safe and severely vulnerable. Our goal is to ensure that a billion more people have universal health coverage to protect a billion more people from health emergencies and provide a further billion people with better health and well-being.

Who is the role of who?

Founded in 1948, WHO is the United Nations Agency that connects nations, partners, and people to promote health, keep the world safe and severely vulnerable so everyone, everywhere can attain the highest level of health.

What is the rule for skin cancer?

The ABCDE rule for skin cancer is a handy acronym that can help you identify potential skin cancers. The letters stand for Asymmetrical, Border, Color, Diameter, Evolving. A new or changing spot or mole on your skin may be a sign of cancer. When in doubt, it’s best to have a doctor check it out.

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